This post is an open response to the refugee resettlement deal signed between authorities in Australia and their counterparts in Cambodia [aka Cambogia, as it is called in the sub-region]. The objective of this post is to create awareness of the logical reasoning behind such deals, the conventionality that it contradicts, and the preparedness of the Cambodian authorities to provide ‘all’ the legal assistance without discrimination to resettled refugees that may consider Cambodia as their choice for resettlement.
I am a big fan of Australia. In fact my wife’s sister married an Australian and her husband is well informed of all aspects across the social and political divide. They have visited countries in Africa, lived in South America, North America, and not to mention Southeast Asia. Australia is one of the developed countries, but has its own challenges like other developed countries on matters of migration, illegal immigrants, refugees/asylum seekers, economy, etc. I appreciate the Tony Abbot’s government willingness to resettle ‘rejected refugees’ to a third country, given that, repatriation and integration are exhausted, confusingly, they weren’t even refugees.
Well, the choice of Cambodia as a prospective resettlement country contradicts everything we know about resettlement, even if, prospective refugees chose Cambodia as their ‘optimal choice’ for resettlement. Below are some logical reasons why the Aussie-Cambodia long-term resettlement deal is a no go for refugee, asylees, and stateless people and a public showoff to cover up their mess?
1. The legal legislative mechanism not well-defined
Most countries in Southeast Asia lacks a rigorous legislative legal mechanism for refugees and asylum seekers determination and UNHCR currently operates under a pseudo-administrative scheme that in some cases function in total absence of a national asylum/refugee legal framework (http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e487c66.html. paragraph 1). Cambodia is still developing its national legal framework for refugees and asylum seekers and that needs to be well defined and the necessary legal, political, social, and financial systems put in place to support it. Most of these are still lacking or non-existent and the deal demonstrates no reference to such.
2. Fragile Protective Spaces
The protection spaces for refugees, asylum seekers, mixed migrants, and other forms of migrations are not well-defined and protective spaces are not secure because legal refugee and asylum protection frameworks are still on the drawing board. If that is the case, how could they provide the legal protection for the resettlement of refugees, a process that could mean a life choice determination and destination for some of those currently rejected by the Australian immigration authorities?
3. Human Right Abuses
Cambodia and several countries in the region are still recovering from long periods of civil unrest, civil wars, political upheavals, and instabilities that could not have resulted from their own making, or at least exclusively. However, the continuous use of forced detention of refugees, asylum seekers, forced migrants, displaced workers, and stateless people without due process, which subsequently leads to exploitations and abuses most especially women, children and those that are disable should ring a loud bell to reconsider this pathetic deal or make sure that these aspects are considered thoroughly.
4. Does Cambodia has the capacity to take in refugees or asylum seekers?
The answer could be yes as well as a legitimate no. However, this is the iron clay question and this question rings from the top to the bottom of the so-called deal between Australia and Cambodia. The very fact that Cambodia is only willing to pilot test its capacity with only admitting between 2-5 prospective refugees resonate their incapacity to take in refugees on the resettlement scale and their readiness to provide all the legal assistance that would facilitate such transition and if possible permanency. At face value, Cambodia is not ready and refugee admittance should not be considered as if you are driving an ‘object’ project with materialistic gains. These are human beings!
5. Social Services
I am not clear what are Cambodia’s current capacity to provide vigorous line of social services to prospective incoming refugees. The deal does not outlined any plan on what kind of social services are currently available from the Cambodian’s camp to be benefited by prospective resettled refugees. This point was left vague in the deal and illustrates that the Cambodia refugee office has a lot that needs to be worked on.
6. Cambodia’s Returnees
The country of still reintegrating returnees after the end of the Cambodian wars, which took place between the Cambodian government and resistance forces. In 1998 both sides signed the peace settlement deal, which brought an end to the brutal civil war. As much as 47,000 Cambodian returnees were repatriated from Thailand at the close of 1999. These folks are still settling their lives as the process of reintegration takes decades, if not, forever. Do you or can you take in more?
7. Whose choice [to be resettled] is it?
This question would be asked similarly by one of my professors at Clark University, that the decision of being resettled to a third country is a product of who choice? Who makes the final call? The current host government? UNHCR? International resettlement organizations? The resettlement country? The refugee? Under this deal, the answer to some of these question is clear. Cambodia and Australia!! Well, though they mentioned that the choice to be resettled will depend on the ‘rejected refugee applicant’, it is unclear how a reject refugee/asylum applicant will make a choice given that, under Australian refugee law, they are not yet refugees/asylees since their applications were rejected. They are more likely stateless people than refugees. Under such arrangements, and given that they were already denied refugee/asylum status in Australia, their choices are at the mercy of both bodies in the deal. How would their so-call refugee resettlement status be processed to be relocated to Cambodia, since by fact, they are not yet refugees, they are denied refugee status? Under what international law would their refugee case be processed in order to benefit from their choice to be resettled in Cambodia? These and many other points resonate that this deal is a public showoff to gain international attention and has no interest whatsoever in the desperate lives of those who are the true victims—the refugees, asylees, detainees, etc.
Action against global climate change is overdue! Today’s matches around the world illustrate the people’s willingness to act against the unprecedented impacts of climate change and the lack of actions by their leaders. One goal of the match is to send a strong message to authorities that ‘we the people can no longer sit, wait, and do nothing to revert the effects of anthropogenic-induced climate change. As UN Secretary General stated, “there is no plan B because there is no planet B.” Millions of people around the world, not only those in New York City, share similar vision, which resonates with nature’s call, to act now or face total annihilation in decades to come. If we don’t act now our children and their children will have to live and pay for our crimes against nature.
Our leaders over the past few decades have being playing the political games to act or not to act, prioritizing other ‘national security issues’ and sidelining one that could put all of us in the deepest abyss just by a single strike. Should we continue to sit like the ‘dumb and dumber’ as our lives and the lives of future generations become part of a political game plan? No more! The people stood up today and sounded one of the loudest calls for our leaders to wake up from daydreaming and do what’s right to change the status quo to revert global climate change.
Today, we listened to talks of wars from Ukraine to Boko Haram to al-Shabaah to Islamic State and the story of these atrocities as well as our military engagements and narrative continue to flow just as issues of climate change are silently tabled. Will the fight against IS to instate peace, democracy, justice, and transparency in the Middle East and other parts of the world over shadow the war against global climate change? A war that doesn’t discriminate whether you are a muslim or christian, whether we are poor or rich, whether we live in Hollywood or Bollywood or Nollywood, black or white, indigenous or not. When the climate strikes those who are more vulnerable would be impacted first and in most cases worst. The match has sounded the warning that we need to proactively, aggressively, and decisively act now to address the unprecedented effects of climate change by reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and the wars against Islamic State, Boko Haram, al-Shabaah, etc. should not overshadow the war against climate change. Our leaders need to wake up and act because they have just heard the people’s will and their will is to act and to act NOW!
Do you love traveling? This post is meant for you! Traveling is fun, but it could also be very stressful if not well plan in advance. In this post, I seek to present few tips for all travelers especially those traveling abroad. This post is not meant to be exhaustive, neither for the information presented herein to replace any government travels tips or alert.
1. Be mentally prepared
Mental preparedness is a very important aspect that needs to be considered carefully before booking your ticket. Our mental state impacts our characters and our characters induce certain behaviors that could be positive or negative, stereotypical or critical, true or false impressions, etc. Your body should follow your head, heart, and soul and not the other way round. Mental preparedness also allows you to embrace your trip with confidence, joy, and peace of mind. Your physical health and mental health are well-connected and defined. So, before you embark on an international journey, whether it is for a vacation, family reunion, school, research, marriage, etc make sure you are mentally fit to embark on the journey.
2. Check on visas requirements
This is also a crucial point. You don’t want to arrive at the airport just to be told by the airline that you wouldn’t be accepted onboard because you need a visa. This almost happened to me in January 2014 on my way from Jakarta, Indonesia to Vientiane, Lao PDR via Viet Nam Airline. I had to transit from Ho Chi Minh City (Formerly Sargon) to Hanoi for more than 24 hours during my trip to Laos. Since transit flight from Sargon to Hanoi was a domestic flight, according to Viet Nam Law, I (as an American Citizen) needed a transit visa to be able to board my flight from Sargon to Hanoi even though my final destination was Vientiane, Laos for which I already had a visa. Here I was in Bali enjoying the sunshine beaches with my family and faced with the challenge of obtaining a Viet Namese transit visa. Luckily, Google never lies, if you search credible sources. I was able to obtained a pre-arrival transit visa via: http://www.vietnamvisacorp.com. My passport information, fees, and processing fees were emailed to folks at Viet Nam Visa Corp and within 4 hours, I received a rubber stem scanned pdf version letter giving me pre-arrival approval to land and stay in Viet Nam for 32 hours, which was legitimate. I presented the letter to the airline and they allowed me to board the flight without which I wouldn’t be allowed, if I don’t have a visa. I initially thought I never needed a visit since I was transit in Viet Nam, but actually needed one since my transit required a second/domestic travel from Sargon to Hanoi. So, you need to always make sure which country allows you visa on arrival and which doesn’t. Also, if you are transiting in a country, you could be in a milky water, if you stay over for more than 24 hours. If you don’t plan on leaving the airport you should be fine. However, some international airports around the world are not operated on 24 hours. So, this could be a problem. You don’t want to get into any problem with immigration officers. So, make sure you always double-check on visas requirements. If your flight plan requires you to transit in other countries, make sure to check on transit visa requirements for all transiting countries.
3. Travel Smart
Smart travelers are those who plan well in advance and make sure they are comfortable while traveling. This is traveling such that you minimize expense, while capitalizing on every positive opportunities as you travel. Also, make sure you familiarize yourself with the U.S. Department of State Travel site for those that are U.S. Citizen National or U.S. Non-citizen National. Here is the link: http://travel.state.gov/content/travel/english.html. If you register with the “Smart Traveler Enrollment Program” [https://step.state.gov/step/] at the U.S. Department of State, you will be notified with information, warnings, alerts, etc for all countries you listed when you register with the STEP. This is a very important tool that could save you more time, energy, and resources. Traveling smart means registering smart! So, make use of it! If you feel uncomfortable providing information of USDS of your international travels by registering with the STEP, just make sure someone else knows where you are heading, potential places you will be visiting, etc so that someone could have the officials inform should something happen.
This is the most important aspect. Make sure that your passport is valid for at least more than 6-month. Some countries could even deny you visa if your passport is valid for less than 6-month. Renew your passport as necessary. Let assume that your passport is valid, you’ve gotten your visa, ticket(s), cash, vaccines (as appropriate), etc make sure you make legible photocopies of your passport biographic pages, visas, any immigration document presented to you for your destined countries/transiting cities, important ID cards, health insurance card, etc. This is very important because in case of theft, misplace passport or identification cards, you always have backups. You never know when the unexpected happens, so, planning ahead would save you all the stress associated with this. If you are unclear what form of identifications you would need apart from your passport as you journey abroad, ask the appropriate Embassy of the countries you plan to travel to. However, in almost all cases, your passport, health insurance card, driver’s licenses, and or work ID could be some credible ID to take along. These could help in case an issue arise.
One of the most important thing to take along with you as you travel is your mobile phone. While some phone companies in the US can’t work abroad, some phones from T-Mobile, MetroPCS, Sprint, etc could use SIM Card from other countries, but remember, that means your phone has to be decoded before it can use the SIM cards from other countries. This process could be expensive for some travelers weight your options and see what’s best for you as you travel. One easier option is to get a phone immediately upon arrival in the country where you are heading. However, make sure the phone vendors “don’t eat your eye”, meaning charging you more for a phone that would usually cost less. If you know someone already in the city/country where you are traveling make sure you send them some money to buy you a phone that you can use immediately or you can buy one. However, you have to be a good negotiator to decide on some ridiculous price that would be punched in your face. This is no surprise, so be prepared for that one.
6. Secure your electronic gadgets
Most of us travel abroad with series of personal electronic gadgets,which are crucial to our journeys, to stay in touch with love ones, relatives, friends and record our experiences as we adventure. Taking these gadgets is one thing and bringing them back safely is another. Don’t flash your gadgets in the public as that could be inviting unexpected attention. Be cautious and stay alert. Do not put electronic gadgets in checked-in luggage if possible just to make sure that they aren’t damage. Make sure you backup all your data and materials on your electronic system before traveling.
7. Double check on medical documents and requirements
If you are traveling for the first time, make sure you get the appropriate vaccines of specific/potential illnesses to regions you are traveling to. Consult with your primary health provider and insurance company to determine if these vaccines are cover. Also, make sure you inform your insurance company where you are traveling, how long you will be there and when you will be back in the country. This information will help them provide recommendations of appropriate health affiliate companies that you could seek treatment or services from if you become ill. If your travel abroad is long-term, make sure you have a print out of your health insurance booklet and all appropriate forms and document their contact information in your personal notebook. You might need this urgently!
8. Contact your bank or financial institution
Most people forget about this aspect before they embark on a trip. Even if your trip is for a few days, a month, few months or a year, contacting your bank and letting them know and documenting all potential travels plans; that is, which include all cities or countries will you be traveling. This is important if you will be conducting direct financial activities via your home bank account through the us of ATM or other medium. If your financial institution is unaware and they detect your ATM/Visa Card is being used in a country without being informed, they would think your account was hack or card stolen and is being used elsewhere. They are right in every capacity to protect your resources by blocking the transaction and subsequently putting a restriction on the card until they can verify the use. Trust me! You really do not want to fall in this mess. Imagine the stress associated with trying to call a financial institution here in the US when you are about 9,000 miles away somewhere in West Papua or on the island of The Philippines. What will happen is that you will have to wait until folks in the US goes are working (time difference stress), buy tremendous amount of credit (very expensive to call back to the US), call your bank, probably put on hold for several minutes if not hours, listen to some annoying automated message of some robots, asked several repeated questions about your identity (verification process), probably put on hold again for the person speaking to you to talk to their supervisor (your call minutes is almost ended), and if you are luck, problem solve or the worst case, your time, resources, etc wasted and there you are having to repeat the process again. So, you don’t really want to be in this situation. Call your banks, credit card companies and let them know where you are going and that you will use your cards at the ATM while abroad. Watch out for ATM fees, they are like vampires that suck your money from your account. This is very important! It could eat up your budget significantly. Most travelers rarely pay attention to this until you return and see how much money was paid using the ATM.
9. DO NOT CARRY ONBOARD OR PLACE IN CHECKED-IN LUGGAGES PROHIBITED ITEMS
The FAA as well as aviation authorities in other countries are very strict on hazardous items being transported via civilian airlines. Here is a link to some resources released by the FAA: http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ash/ash_programs/hazmat/media/materialscarriedbypassengersandcrew.pdf. Carrying items that are restricted could delay your time and attract unnecessary attention on you. Certain items could be carried, however, there are strict process put in place for those items. Contact your airline carrier well in advance about your plan and they would let you know how to proceed.
10. Carry few cash
I overlook or forget this almost each time I travel. How much to carry? Well, I don’t have an answer to that question. I would say as much as would be needed to survive in case there is an emergency. The issue here is not to attract unwanted attention to you when revealing cash. Just watch your back and cautious!
11. Track your air travel mileage
Most airlines provide travel rewards for those flying with them. Make use of these opportunities as cumulative mileages could land you and your family a ‘free fly’ adventure. Contact your favorite airline(s) and register before your next trip.
12. Travel green
Traveling abroad requires significant mileages, which caused pollution. As much as possible, reduce your vacation plans to destinations abroad to local or much closer alternatives. Or prioritize green airlines. Here is an article that talks about eco-efficient airlines: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/28/green-airlines-carbon-efficiency_n_885553.html. Or get familiarize with some eco-efficient air travel tips: http://news.travel.aol.com/2011/06/28/eco-friendly-flying-how-to-reduce-your-carbon-footprint-in-the/.
13. Make use of inflight food
Eat and drink enough water while traveling. The ticket fees include food and complimentary drinks. Make use of these and don’t starve yourself as most international travels last for few hours. Make sure you notify the airline about your specific nutritional needs. This could be done while booking your ticket. If for any specific personal reason(s) you can’t eat food provided, make sure you have some snacks with you.
14. Choose the seat you like
You will most likely be seated throughout the flight. While the option of seat choice depends on several factors (other passengers, number of available vacant seats, etc) choose the seat you would like to be seated in. Note that this would have to be verified by the airline. This post is specific to the economy class passengers:)
15. Are you flying with children?
If you have kids traveling along with you make sure you inform the travel agency and or the airline in advance to make sure they have that information in order to provide you with the necessary assistance to make your trip and the experience of your kids an adventure. Take in your carry on some toys for your kids look for their favorite ones. This could help you a lot. If your departure time requires you to be at the airport 2-hours before boarding start going their 3-hours before because you have kids and that could take time to arrive on time.
16. Arrive at the airport on time
Well, I was a victim of this underestimating traffic in Providence in 2007 when I had a 6:00pm flight from Providence to Richmond, VA. I started traveling 3 hours early and what should have lasted 30-45 minutes. In the midst of traffic I was 10 minutes late. I had to rebook a different flight.
17. Watch out for airports taxes
Most countries you will be traveling to requires airport taxes before you depart some usually paid directly to the airline when you check in or at the immigration officer before your passport is stemmed. Make sure you have some local currency to handle this fee as you will not be allowed to board without paying the appropriate airport tax. Here is a link provided by the International Air Travel Agency (IATA), which provides prior information on specific customs, currency, and airport tax regulations [http://www.iatatravelcentre.com/customs-currency-airport-tax-regulations.htm#]. This could help you plan well. Just select the country of your destination and search.
18. Read about the cities/countries of your destination at least before heading there
You could use the CIA country fact book for this, but that in itself is so formal, but provides credible information. If you are familiar with the language of your destined cities/countries, try navigating online for credible information of what life looks like there, areas to visit, food, people, culture, local norms, etc. Some prior knowledge and information is always helpful. If your country has an embassy in that country, visit the link of your country’s embassy in the country and get to know what relations is like at least from what you read.
19. Do what the locals ‘legally’ do
This is a very easy strategy to get localized if you intent to stay much longer. Even if your stay is brief, don’t act differently. This doesn’t mean doing everything they do, but don’t act differently. You want to make use of your experience, so, stop talking, look, listen, learn, do, and share. Good strategy? I bet!
I hope there were some useful information in this post for your next travel, good luck, and have fun!
The 2015 4th International Conference on Climate Change and Humanity (ICCCH 2015) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances and research results in the fields of Climate Change and Humanity. ICCCH 2015 will bring together leading engineers and scientists in Climate Change and Humanity from around the world.
Topics of interest for submission include, but are not limited to:
Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation
Environmental Pollution & Management
Renewable Energy Sources
Energy Policy, Planning & Management
Climate Change and Global Warming
Remote Sensing and Environment
Air pollution from mobile and stationary sources
Noise and acoustics
Electromagnetic waves and telecommunication
Hazardous waste and waste treatment
Industrial waste treatment
Water pollution and treatment
Solid waste management
Environmental management systems
Air pollution control and equipment
Pollution prevention in industry
Population and environment in developing countries
Urbanisation and flood risk implications for coping in coastal zones
Green growth and policy challenges in coastal zone management
ICT, climate risk communication and public awareness framing
Government sector policy experiences with climate change
Civil society and NGO sector experience with climate change
Industry and private business sector experience with climate change including finance
International diplomacy, climate change and adaptation finance
Gender, poverty and climate change mainstreaming
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the context of climate change
Agriculture, fisheries and food security in the context of climate change
Climate change, water and sanitation, and health in developing countries
Indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation
All ICCCH 2015 papers will be published in the Journal of Environmental Science and Development (IJESD, ISSN:2010-0264) , and all registered papers will be included in the Engineering & Technology Digital Library, and indexed by EBSCO, WorldCat, Google Scholar, Cross ref, ProQuest , CABI and sent to be reviewed by EI Compendex and ISI Proceedings.
One Excellent Paper will be selected from each oral session. The Certificate for Excellent Papers will be awarded in the Dinner Banquet on January 25, 2015.
Paper submission (Full Paper) Before September 15, 2014
Notification of acceptance On October 5, 2014
Authors’ Registration Before October 25, 2014
Final paper submission Before October 25, 2014
ICCCH 2015 Conference Dates January 24-25, 2015
One Day Tour January 26, 2015
1. Electronic Submission System; ( .pdf)
2. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Please visit this link for more information: URL:http://www.iccch.org/cfp.htm
The 2nd International Conference on ARD aims to provide a venue for sharing the wide and diverse knowledge pool on ARD that exists within and beyond the Southeast Asian region. Specific objectives include the following:
Highlight creative and innovative technological and practical approaches in the various processes comprising the agricultural system, spanning the entire agricultural value chain from production through to post-harvest, processing, marketing, transport and logistics;
Showcase and derive useful lessons from institutional successes (and failures) in the management of the agricultural system and rural communities, including governance and value chain relationships; and
Draw evidence-based policy implications from the knowledge exchange, to guide regional, national and sub-national policies and initiatives for ARD in the context of intensified regional cooperation and integration.
The Conference is expected to produce useful information about the current situation and gaps on ARD in the region and lead to the identification of policy options for decision-makers or investment opportunities for the private sector. Apart from preparing the Overall Proceedings of the Conference, policy briefs, monographs and journal articles will be produced focusing on key policy implications and recommendations towards achieving resilience, inclusiveness and integration of the agriculture sector in the region
Submit your abstract for The Montpellier Global Science Conference by the 31st of October 2014.
Online submission process
• Step 1: The author must register, which will require a username, password and email address (this email address will be your user account) You will then receive an email with a link to click in order to confirm your account
• Step 2: You need to log in, go to the submission page and click on the “Create here” button.
You will be requested to select one of the following parallel sessions:
Parallel Sessions L1:
Focus on Regions
Parallel Sessions L2: Concepts and
Parallel Sessions L3: Solutions
L2.1: Metrics of adaptation, mitigation
and food security and CSA multi-criteria
L3.1 Towards climate smart
L2.2: Methods for managing
uncertainties and risks through CSA
L3.2 Towards climate smart
L1.3: Latin America
L2.3: Assessing synergies and tradeoffs
between CSA components (adaptation,
mitigation and food security)
L3.3 Towards climate smart
L2.4: Economics and trade implications
L3.4 Towards climate smart food
L1.5: North America
L2.5: Behaviours, barriers, drivers and
institutions for CSA
L3.5 Towards climate smart
A detailed synopsis for each session is available here.
• Step 3: Fill the submission form and select whether you want to submit an oral presentation or a poster (click here for poster guidelines).
Once finished, the author can preview her/his abstract and edit it until it has been submitted.
P.D. The authors will be notified of the acceptance of their abstract by November 17th, 2014.
Guidelines for preparation of abstracts
Template for the abstract (please use font style and font size as shown here)
The title should be concise and informative (<120 characters including spaces, i.e. approx. 16 words), written with lower case letters, except for scientific names where capital letters are needed (e.g. pH, DNA…).
The list of authors should be provided beginning with last name of first author, and if belonging to several affiliations, numbered according to the list of addresses. Capital letters to be used only for the initials of names and last names.The list of authors’ addresses should be numbered according to the list of authors.
The text of the abstract itself should be <2000 characters including spaces, i.e. approx. 300 words in a single paragraph, including background and aims, materials and methods, major results and conclusion, no references need to be included.
For more information on The Montpellier Global Science Conference 2015 for Climate-Smart Agriculture go to http://csa2015.cirad.fr/
The CGIAR Research Center for Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) is a co-organiser of The Montpellier Global Science Conference.
The Climate Food and Farming (CLIFF) Research Network invites applications from students from developing countries currently enrolled in PhD programs for short-term scientific training and research stays at CGIAR research centers.
Applicants should have a background in agriculture and climate change research and an interest in mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. We especially seek students with experience with crop-livestock systems.
Selected students will be sponsored for short-term (3-4 month) scientific training and research stays at CGIAR centers or affiliated research institutions in their home regions. (Scientific stays to non-CGIAR centers will be considered if justified.)
During their tenure at the host institutions, students will learn approaches used in the Standard Assessment of Mitigation Potential and Livelihoods in Smallholder Systems (SAMPLES) research program to evaluate options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from smallholder systems and the changes in productivity and livelihood indicators associated with alternative practices. The techniques that may be studied include (but are not limited to) remote sensing, economic surveys, and measurement of greenhouse gas emissions. Topics will depend on student and host institution scientist interests.
Applications are invited for training and travel grants of up to 10,000 USD. The grants will be used to support living and research costs at the host institution for short stays (3-4 months) to take place in 2015. It is important to note that these grants will not necessarily be to support participants’ own research, but to facilitate training on techniques and methods being applied in CCAFS research.
The application must include the following documents merged into one pdf file:
1-2 page motivation letter (described below).
1-page curriculum vitae that includes your contact details.
Letter of support from your university supervisor.
All applications must be in English.
The motivation letter, no more than two A4 pages, must include:
Your name, citizenship and the country where you are conducting your graduate study.
The objectives of your graduate study.
Linkages between your study and the SAMPLES program.
Any other relevant research experience.
Justification for the short-term scientific visit. How will scientific training with the SAMPLES program improve your graduate research?
Eligibility and conditions
Applicants must be currently enrolled PhD students.
Applicants must be students from and conducting their research in a developing country. For this call, we include all countries NOT listed as “high income economies” in this World Bank database.
The grant money should be used to finance the short-term scientific visit, NOT tuition or other fees related to the degree.
Scientific visits must take place during 2015.
Applications must be submitted on or before the 30th of September 2014. To submit your application and for any questions, please contact the coordinator of the CLIFF network, Tanka Kandel, Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Email: Tanka.Kandel@agrsci.dk
Successful applicants will be notified by email by December 2014 and will be invited to attend a CLIFF-funded workshop in early 2015.
Potential host centers and topics
The following CGIAR centers have indicated their willingness to host students to collaborate on the described research projects, all of which are related to SAMPLES. If you have previous experience or interests related to one of the projects described below, please indicate this in your motivation letter.
1. REGION: EAST AFRICA
Research locations: Kenya, Uganda, or Tanzania
CGIAR host center: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Center for
International Forestry Research (CIFOR), or World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF)
Topic: Combining mitigation potential from the livestock sector with LED pathways
Emissions from livestock production systems dominate the greenhouse gas budgets of East Africa. Gaps and uncertainties in our knowledge – of emission rates, mitigation opportunities, incentives to change practice, and institutions that enable adoption – slow down the transition toward low emissions development in the livestock sector, the best opportunity for mitigation in the region. This project integrates social and biophysical research, including surveys, ethnography, spatial and mechanistic modeling, and targeted GHG measurements, to co-define with stakeholders landscape mitigation leverage points, supportive social constructs, and national priorities in order to inform ongoing climate change policy processes in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya.
2. REGION: LATIN AMERICA
Research locations: Costa Rica or Colombia
CGIAR host centers: International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) or World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)
Topic: Supporting low emissions development planning for the cattle sector through best-fit mitigation options and informed policy
The aim of this research is to explore mitigation options and approaches for producing more milk and meat and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities between 15% to 30% for milk, beef, and dual purpose systems mostly via decreased enteric fermentation and increased soil carbon accumulation from pastures.
A combination of GHG measurement approaches (poly tunnels/GASMET/in vitro) and established empirical relationships based on feed intake and proxies for GHG emissions will be used. This approach will contribute towards development of cost-effective methods for measurement that support evaluation of mitigation options and identification of incentives for adoption of practices in the cattle sector.
3. REGION: SOUTHEAST ASIA
Research location: Viet Nam
CGIAR host center: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). Center for
International Forestry Research (CIFOR), WorldFish, or International Rice Research
Topic: Identification and implementation support of mitigation priorities and opportunities in rice-dominated landscapes
Policy makers need precise information for prioritizing mitigation interventions. While there have been several attempts to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from Vietnamese agriculture, this project will use state-of-the-art models in combination with new spatial and temporal information derived from other projects. This will include an analysis of hotspots of emissions, with different emission sources (lowland and upland production systems, livestock systems) and potential sinks (afforestation of degraded land) as well as spatially explicit evaluation of mitigation options. Methods used in this project will include primarily spatial analysis and modeling, not field measurements. Students interested in working on this project will ideally have some experience with computer modeling.
4. REGION: SOUTH ASIA
Research location: India
CGIAR host center: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Topic: Quantification of GHG emission in contrasting tillage, residue and nutrient management scenarios in wheat and rice-based cropping systems
This project continues GHG measurements in long-term trials of wheat- and rice-based cropping systems under a range of crop establishment, cropping sequence, residue management and nutrient management regimes and in different agro-ecological conditions in the Indo-Gangetic plain.
5. REGION: SOUTHEAST ASIA
Research location: Philippines, Viet Nam, Lao PDR, or Cambodia
CGIAR host center: International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
Topic: Mitigation strategies in rice production
Alternate-Wetting-and-Drying (AWD) is a rice management strategy that reduces water use and greenhouse gas emissions. It has great potential as a mitigation strategy with co-benefits for crop performance, but uptake has been slow. This project will address the problem of slow uptake of AWD and other mitigation options by providing a comprehensive methodology for assessing and strengthening co-benefits of mitigation. Questions to be addressed include:
· How do the gendered patterns of interaction and degree of integration of women into decision making influence collective action to adopt mitigation technology?
· What is the economic input/output ratio of different mitigation options (incl. labor) and how could these practices be made more profitable and socially acceptable?
· Given that water savings may not always be an incentive per se, what other features of improved irrigation techniques can render the buy-in required for farmers’ adoption?
The Climate Food and Farming (CLIFF) Research Network is a collaborative initiative of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the Universities of Copenhagen and Aarhus. The Network aims to build the capacity of young scientists, generate novel climate change research on smallholder farming systems, and facilitate South-South knowledge exchange. Each year, starting in 2011, CLIFF has provided small grants to support PhD research and training on topics related to SAMPLES, which is also a program of CCAFS.
The SAMPLES program
SAMPLES is a global research program that investigates the impact of smallholder agriculture on the climate. Currently, extremely limited data are available on greenhouse gas emissions and removals from smallholder production systems. The dearth of information constrains the transition to low emissions agricultural development. SAMPLES aims to generate robust and comparable data on greenhouse gas emissions and livelihood indicators for smallholder farming systems. Activities within the SAMPLES program are carried out by a network of researchers at several CGIAR centers.
Grant recipients automatically become members of the CLIFF network, which provides networking and collaborative opportunities with fellow students and leading experts.
Please visit these websites before preparing your application.