Rethinking the War in Iraq: A Human Impact Assessment

Rethinking the War in Iraq: A Human Impact Assessment

Jenkins Macedo

ID#: 0466515

Dr. Mohamed Eskandari, Professor of Middle East Changing Environment

Department of Physical and Earth Sciences Worcester State College 13 May 2010


On March 20 2003, the United States and her allies invaded Iraq with a promise of bringing a better life by a change in the political system. Using the language of “preemption”, President George W. Bush justified the war based on the assumption that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and also had links with Al-Qaeda. These assumptions were used to conclude that Iraq posed an imminent national security threat to the United States and her allies in the region. The British and Americans governments already had made up their mind to change the regime in Iraq and were only looking for some excuse. What was supposed to be a quick removal of Saddam Hussein has turned into a prolonged war with no end in sight. Needless to say, a prolonged war has taken its toll on ordinary Iraqis. This study seeks to assess the human impacts of the war on Iraqis, such as health related issues, the use of Depleted Uranium (DU), interruptions in education, and forced migration in the forms of internal displacements and refugees. Analysis was based on secondary data collected from Iraq between 2002 and 2006 as reported in series of surveys conducted by “Medact” a UK-based global health charity. The central research question that was explored is what were the human impacts of the war on the Iraqi people? Key Words: Iraq, American Government, Middle East, Terrorism, Preemption, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), President George W. Bush

How Effective is the IEA’s Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Regulation? A Critique of the U.S. CO2 Reduction through CCS


How Effective is the IEA’s Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Regulation?
A Critique of the U.S. CO2 Reduction through CCS

M.S. Environmental Science and Policy, 2014


Associate Professor of Environmental Science & Policy
Department of IDCE
Clark University


M.S. Environmental Science and Policy, 2014

May 6, 2013


The Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) framework developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) is recognize globally as the only alternative for addressing the current state of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stationary sources, such as fossil fuels power plants. The U.S. is a signatory and member of the IEA networks of countries that is currently implementing the CCS approach. This critical pollution policy research paper explores the IEA’s CCS model of CO2 sequestration building on the regulatory progresses and barriers in the U.S. and provides insightful policy recommendations for the effective reconstruction of the CCS program to address the barriers and gaps for effective CO2 mitigation. The work relied heavily on secondary research of peer reviewed research journal articles, scientific reports by governments, institutions and organizations annual reports as well as professional institutions.

CAN BIOCHAR AMENDMENTS IMPROVE SOIL QUALITY AND REDUCE CO2? A Climate Change Mitigation Approach through Regenerative Agriculture

A Critical Review Research Paper on Biofuel and bio-energy in sustainable agriculture.

December 12, 2013


Variations in rainfall, increased mean surface temperature, persistent drought, reduced soil moisture and nutrient, and crop failures have all been evidently linked to anthropogenic-induced climate change, which impacts food security. Agricultural soils can be used to reduce atmospheric CO2 by altering the physicochemical composition of soil organic matter through biochar soil amendments. This study draws on current literature published online, in peer review journal articles, books, and conference proceedings to assess the implications of biochar soil amendments to enhance soil quality, while reducing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Building on the critical analytical approach, biochar use as soil amendments have been tested to have promising environmental potential, which improves soil quality and quantity thereby enhancing soil moisture status and reduces atmospheric CO2. Analyses of biochar amended soils in terrestrial ecosystems reduces about 12% of the total Carbon (C) emitted through anthropogenic land use change. Biochar amended soil systems are dependable in tracing and quantifying sequestered C and can stay in the soil for thousands of years. The challenge with biochar as soil amendments is the type of biomass that can yield high quality biochar through the pyrolysis process.

Key words: Biochar, amendments, regenerative agriculture, food security, climate change, atmospheric CO2, pyrolysis, Carbon, soil moisture.

PT FREEPORT-INDONESIA’S SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK: An Exploratory Study of Kuala Kencana as a Model of a Sustainable Community in West Papua, Indonesia.

Jenkins Macedo
M.S. Cand., Environmental Science and Policy
Clark University

Prof. Stephen McCauley
Assisting Professor of Environmental Science & Policy
Department of International Development, Community, and Environment
Clark University

May 16, 2013


Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold Company (FCX) is one of the largest copper and gold mining companies in the world with branches in the United States, Indonesia, Chile, Peru and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). FCX is a founding member and signatory to the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM), which regulates and sets specific regulatory guidelines, principles, and standards to foster effective mining operations and to enhance the sustainability of natural resources in local communities, while supplying the world’s economy with precious metals. Freeport-Indonesia, a subsidiary of FCX, implements the ICMM’s Sustainable Development Framework (SDF) and submits annual operational reports through the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). The ICMM’s SDF includes a commitment to upholding human rights for employees and local communities, while improving environmental sustainability through active cultural engagement with local and indigenous communities. This paper explored in what ways Freeport-Indonesia use the SDF to create Kuala Kencana as a model of a sustainable community in the heart biological diverse eco-regions in Timika, West Papua. The paper builds on secondary data published in reports and from personal observations during four trips in the region between October 2012 and August 2013.
PT Freeport-Indonesia sustainable development initiatives are gear towards biodiversity protection and conservation, environmental reclamation, cultural engagement through active dialogue, microfinance, investment in secondary education, the provision of housing infrastructure for employees and their families, free public health services and the investment and the installation of renewable energy technologies such as biodiesel and solar systems to minimize the company’s ecological footprints.

Key Words: Sustainable Development Framework, PT Freeport-Indonesia, Sustainable Communities, Kuala Kencana, Timika, International Council on Mining and Metals, Global Reporting Initiative, and Environment.

This research report in no way represents the thoughts, authentication, and certification of Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold Company, non its subsidiaries PT Freeport-Indonesia, neither are the information herein represent the thoughts or opinions of the International Council on Mining and Metals non the Global Reporting Initiative. The information presented herein are solely based on personal observation during several personal visits to Kuala Kencana, West Papua and informational research based on secondary literature reviews, published reports, grey literatures, media releases, and technical operational reports published online.


Cand., M.S., Environmental Science & Policy, 2014
Cand., M.S., Environmental Science & Policy, 2013
Cand., B.A., Environmental & Conservation Biology, 2013
Cand., B.A., Environmental & Conservation Biology, 2013


(EN 103 / IDCE 30185) Department of International Development, Community, and Environment

Dr. Stephen McCauley, Ph.D.
Visiting Assistant Professor of Environmental Science & Policy


Edible sustainable landscaping is an important step toward sustainability in an urban environment. Replacing a traditional grass lawn with this type of landscaping would reduce water and maintenance requirements of an area of campus and would create habitat for animals as well as providing food for local wildlife, pollinators, and members of the community. The project sought to design a plot of edible landscaping on campus of Clark University and understanding faculty and staff attitudes and opinions toward the project. The methods used in this project included the exploration of secondary data on edible landscaping, field trip to UMass Amherst, interviews with six stakeholders, soil test analysis, plot and plants selection. The results indicated most stakeholders agreed that edible, sustainable landscaping at Clark would increase the institution’s approach to sustainability, foster students’ learning and encourage behavioral change through education, and collaborative partnership. Annual herbs, fruit-bearing shrubs, nutrient accumulating ground cover plants, and some trees are ideal for this type of landscaping. The soil test illustrated that the soil quality at the selected plot is low in important nutrients but lead levels are below hazardous limits so growing edible plants will not be a problem with the addition of compost. With the support of staff and faculty, one plot in Downing Street that is dominated by grass and difficult to mow was selected for this edible landscaping pilot project.

LIGHTING THE ACADEMIC COMMONS: A Case Study of Electricity Efficiency of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps

A research paper on Technology for Renewable Energy
Jenkins Divo Macedo
M.S., Environmental Science & Policy (2014)
M.A., International Development & Social Change (IDSC)

13th December, 2012


This project explored the efficiency of the lighting systems at the Academic Commons (AC) at the Goddard Library at Clark University as part of an academic research paper for the Technology for Renewable Energy course taught by Dr. Charles Agosta, Chair of the Physics Department. The study builds on students’ responses to informal and open-ended surveys and electricity energy consumption data from the lighting systems. The data were analyzed using a 2010-MS Excel base calculator to provide descriptive statistics on demographic characteristics and statistical analysis of electricity used via lighting to determine energy cost, savings, CO2 emissions, and offsets by comparing the status quo (CFL lamps) against two hypothetical scenarios. The results indicate that, while the CFL lamps electricity consumption seems efficient in terms of CO2 emissions and cost compared to incandescent lamps, converting the lighting systems to LEDs would reduce CO2 emissions substantially and contribute to Clark University’s goal of zero emissions by 2020 thereby saving cost. The results suggest that Clark University would be saving about $3,687.00/year in lighting systems at the AC, while reducing 18,420 lbs. of CO2/year against the status quo of 147,355 lbs. of CO2/year.

Key Words: Energy efficiency, Lighting, Academic Commons, Clark University, greenhouse gases, electricity

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